Histone deacetylases (HDACs), also called as lysine deacetylases, are enzymes that remove acetyl group from the lysine (amino acid) present on histones. This ensures wrapping up of histones on the DNA more tightly and suppresses the gene effect. Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) works exactly opposite to the histone deacetylases and is related to gene transcription. Thus, DNA expression is regulated by acetylation and de-acetylation. Aberrations and mutations induced into HDACs are known to develop cancers and some other chronic conditions including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory diseases, osteoporosis, etc. Histone deacetylases inhibitors are agents that inhibit the activity of HDAC (deacetylation) and instigate apoptosis of tumor cells. In humans, there are around 18 HDACs, which are categorized into four classes - HDAC I, II (A and B), III and IV.
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